[International Journal of Physiotherapy 2015; 2(4) : 573-675] RSS
Kailash Sharma, Gaurav Shori
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67735
Pages : 573-580
Background: Kinesio Tape (KT) is a somewhat new type of taping technique gaining popularity as both treatment and performance enhancement tool. Considering the fact that KT can improve muscle performance, however, limited research has been done on the different technique of strips application of KT on functional performance. Therefore purpose of this study is to compare Comparison of three kinesio technique application on jumping in collegiate female athletes.
Methods: 45 healthy collegiate female athletes were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were randomly divided into three equal groups (group I, n=15, Group II, n=15 & group III, n=15). Group I received Y application of kinesio taping, Group II received I application of kinesio taping while, Group III underwent combined Y & I application of kinesio tape on triceps surae. Pre and post measurement of vertical jump (in terms of power average, power peak) and horizontal distance were documented.
Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the difference power average, difference power peak and difference horizontal jump in group I, II and III (p<0.001). Within group comparison also revealed statistically significant differences in power average, power peak and horizontal jump in all the three groups (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Combined technique (Y and I) application of kinesio was more effective in improving vertical jump (power average, power peak) and horizontal jump as compared to Y and I application alone.
Key Words: Kinesio taping, Power Average, Power Peak, and Horizontal Distance
Ahmed Omar Abdelnaeem, Alaa Balbaa, Nessreen Fawzy Mahmoud
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67736
Pages : 581-586
Background: Neck pain and dysfunction may be the consequence of adopting sustained non-neutral spinal postures. Such postures are associated with increased activation of the neck-shoulder stabilizer muscles, which eventually increase the loading of cervical spine. Forward head posture is a common postural dysfunction that has been associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of deep cervical flexor muscles training on the severity of forward head posture in asymptomatic subjects.
Methods: Forty-one asymptomatic subjects volunteered in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n= 20)that received a home-based training of deep cervical flexor muscles for 6-weeks, and a control group(n= 21) that received only the assessment procedure. Subjects were assessed at baseline and 6weeks later with regards to the severity of forward head as indicated by the cranio-vertebral angle. Also, the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles were assessed.
Results: After six weeks, participants in the intervention group showed significant improvement in all measured variables compared to the control group. Furthermore, participants in the intervention group showed significant difference in all measured variables after 6-weeks of training compared to baseline, whereas those in the control group remained the same.
Conclusion: Six-weeks of deep cervical training improves forward head posture and deep flexors strength and endurance in asymptomatic subjects. Thus, this exercise could be used as a preventive measure against the development of neck dysfunction in at risk population even before the onset of any symptoms.
Keywords: Cranio-vertebral angle, Forward head posture, Craniocervical flexion test, Electronic head posture instrument
S.Tulasi Ratna, Praveen Dowle, Dr.V.B.N.Prasad, Dr. Rakhee K. Paruchuri
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67737
Pages : 587-593
Background: Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders of foot. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition has a dramatic impact on physical mobility and function. Treatment of this condition is usually conservative; however, review of literature revealed no clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy of any targeted treatment for this condition.
Methods: This was a prospective study which included 60 subjects with plantar fasciitis, who were randomly divided into two groups. Subjects in group I received ultrasound and exercise therapy while subjects in group II received kinesio tape in addition to ultrasound and exercise therapy. Patients were evaluated at the beginning of the study and at the end of three weeks using VAS (visual analogue scale) for pain intensity, PFPS (plantar fasciitis pain / disability scale) for functional ability and ultra sonography for any change in the caliber of plantar fascia.
Results: A statistically significant difference in improvement was noted within the groups and between the groups in terms of visual analogue scale and plantar fasciitis pain /disability scale score (p<0.05). Although a statistically significant difference was seen in the plantar fascia thickness by ultrasound in both the groups pre and post treatment, it was insignificant when both groups were compared to each other (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Kinesio taping can be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy in clinical application for greater improvement in pain levels and functional ability in patients with plantar fasciitis.
Key words: plantar fasciitis, kinesio tape, ultrasonography, stretching.
Izham Zain, Faizal Mohamad
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67738
Pages : 594-601
Background: Nonspecific back pain can be defined as pain and discomfort, localized over below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds. Such disorder are known to be a major cause of reduced work capabilities and causing substantial financial consequences and poor productivity. Occupational related nonspecific back pain is the common disorder affecting those workers performing high physical demanding task. The shipping port workers were exposed to hazardous working nature and known to be affected. Numerous study indicate that knowledge and attitude towards safety were contributing factors to occupational related back pain. Currently no study was conducted to determine the relationship between knowledge, attitude and occupational related back pain among them. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of nonspecific back pain and determine the difference between knowledge and attitude toward such incident.
Methods: The respondents were workers known to have nonspecific back pain. The data collection is carry out through a set of questionnaire consists of knowledge, attitudes and Nordic questionnaire on area of back pain.
Results: Majority of respondents (n=70) involve in driving and maneuver terminal crane cargo. The mean of knowledge score is 7.49 (±1.20), attitude score is 5.72 (±1.33) and were ranked in good and moderate respectively. There is no statistical difference between knowledge, attitudes with workers job nature, academic qualification and years of working experience.
Conclusion: A preventive intervention should be introduced to enhance workers attitudes and curb the nonspecific back pain incidents. Employee positive involvement, strongly supported by employer and active engagement of healthcare provider able to curb occupational related back pain at work place.
Key words: Occupational related injury, non-specific back pain, shipping port workers, knowledge and attitudes.
Rie Takakura, Kubo Masayoshi, Yuji Tsubota,
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67739
Pages : 602-609
Background: Physical inactivity is one non-communicable disease threatening to become the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Japan is no exception especially in the younger population. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of high-intensity circuit exercise training (HICET) in university students. The second purpose is to examine the factors influencing exercise adherence.
Methods: This study was a home based experimental study with 65 healthy participants from the Osaka Kawasaki Rehabilitation University, Japan. An independent variable was the 7-minute HICET and a dependent variable was the physical fitness test (PFT) results. All participants were instructed to perform once daily a cycle of HICET, 2-3 times a week non-consecutively for 8 weeks. Pre and post PFT scores for men and women were compared for the effectiveness of the program. A brief survey was conducted 8 weeks after the completion of the study.
Results: Both groups showed improvement in sit-up, push-up, and 5-minute run after the 8 week HICET. The changes between pre and post scores were significant in all but the 5-minute run for women. Discontinuation rate 8 weeks after the study was higher in women than in men, but not statistically significant with no dropouts during intervention.
Discussion: An 8 week home based HICET significantly improved strength for both genders and endurance for men of the university students when measured by PFT. The exercise barriers should be assessed and adapted to fit individual needs to improve adherence rate.
Keywords: HICET (High-intensity circuit exercise training), exercise, strength, endurance, university students, adherence
Pooja Saikia, Abhijit Dutta, Ujwal Bhattacharya, Kritica Boruah
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67740
Pages : 610-618
Background: Foot pronation is a series of movements which is intended to absorb shock by decelerating and cushioning the foot as it comes in contact with surface. When this motion is exaggerated, the ankle rolls too far inward and the arch is flattened causing overpronation. It is seen that with an abnormal pronation, navicular drop occurs. Navicular drop causes pain in ankle and knee, fatigue, difficulty in walking. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of intrinsic muscle strengthening with orthosis over conventional physiotherapy exercises with orthosis for correction of navicular drop and Pain Disability in prolong standing workers.
Method: An Experimental study design, seventy industrial workers were tested for navicular drop test out of which fifty tested positive. The subjects were divided into two groups Group A (N=25) and Group B (N=25). Group-A subjects received intrinsic muscle strengthening exercises with orthosis and Group-B received conventional physiotherapy exercises with orthosis. The duration of treatment continued was given for 8 weeks and outcome measurements were measured at 0 day, 4th week and 8th week using the Navicular drop (ND) test and Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ).
Results: Comparative analysis using Independent t-test was carried out separately for ND and PDQ. For ND, t =-5.01 which is highly significant (p=0.00). It has been inferred that ND decreases more when intrinsic muscle strengthening with orthosis was applied. To see the difference of means of PDQ, t = -1.97 which is significant (p = 0.049) implying that PDQ decrease more when intrinsic muscle strengthening was applied as compared to conventional physiotherapy with orthosis.
Conclusion: It is concluded that 8 weeks of intrinsic muscle strengthening exercise with orthosis is more effective than conventional physiotherapy exercises with orthosis in reducing navicular drop and improving Pain Disability in prolong standing workers.
Key words: Navicular Drop Test, Foot Pronation, Intrinsic muscle exercise, Pain Disability Questionnaire, foot orthosis, intrinsic muscle strengthening exercises
Jayaram Maharjan, Mallikarjunaiah .H .S
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67741
Pages : 619-626
Background: A warm-up is important part of preparation for sprinting. There is popularity of doing stretching as part of warm up before athletic activity. The static stretching and PNF stretching is performed by athletes but their effectiveness on sprinting performance is in state of debate. The objective is to determine the effect of static stretching and PNF stretching on sprinting performance in college sprinters and to compare the effects of PNF stretching over static stretching on sprinting performance in college sprinters.
Method: A total of 100 subjects were taken for the study that fulfill the inclusion criteria and all were divided into group- A (static stretching) and group- B (PNF stretching) by simple random sampling method. Both the groups received 5 minutes of warm-up exercises. Pre-Post design was used, which consisted of running a 40-yard sprint immediately following 2 stretching conditions aimed at the lower limb muscles
Results: In static stretching group sprint time changed from 6.55 with standard deviation of 0.93 to 6.12 with standard deviation of 1.02 (P<.001) and in PNF stretching group sprint time changed from 6.73 with standard deviation of 1.22 to 6.23 with standard deviation of 1.10 (P<.001). However when comparing between group- A (6.12±1.02) and group- B (6.23±1.10) there was no significant difference (P>.605).
Conclusion: Hence both static stretching and PNF stretching can be performed before sprinting activity to improve the sprinting performance.
Keywords: Static stretching, PNF stretching, Warm-up, sprinting performance, 40- yard sprint test
Pradeepika Samagh, Kavita Sudhakar, Rohit Jindal
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67742
Pages : 627-632
Background: Lateral epicondylitis is a work related disorder which is considered to be due to over-use or over-stress of the wrist extensors of the forearm. The patient suffers from pain and decreased function which affects the basic activities in daily life. This reduction in function leading to disability may affect the quality of life as it includes items related to self care, usual activities, emotional problems, pain etc. The present study was conducted to study the impact of Lateral epicondylitis on quality of life.
Methods: 52 subjects diagnosed with Lateral epicondylitis were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Outcome measures were: pain using Visual analog scale, functional disability using Patient rated tennis elbow evaluation and health-related quality of life using Short Form 36.
Results: A significant positive correlation was found between pain and functional disability (p<.001). A significant negative correlation between pain and physical (p=.014) and mental (p=.052) component summary scores of quality of life was found. A significant negative correlation was found between functional disability and physical (p=.002) and mental (p=.015) component summary scores of quality of life. Also a significant correlation was found between physical and mental component summary scores of quality of life (p<.001).
Conclusions: Significant correlation was seen between pain, functional disability and quality of life. This suggests that with an increase in severity of pain there is increase in functional disability with lower QOL both physically and mentally.
Keywords: Lateral epicondylitis, Tennis elbow, Quality of life, Functional disability, Pain.
Nancy N. Patel, Shweta Pachpute
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67743
Pages : 633-639
Background: The ‘Otago exercise programme’ (OEP) is a strength and balance retraining programme designed to prevent falls in older people living in the community. The aim of this study was to find the effects of Otago exercise programme for fall prevention in community dwelling elderly people.
Method: The sample comprised 30 community dwelling elderly around sinhgad road, pune (out of 30, 4 were dropouts) aged over 60 years both male and female falling under moderate fall risk measured by Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment. The intervention consisted mainly strength and balance training. Intervention was done for 1 hr every day, 5 days per week for 6weeks. Outcome measure assessment was done pre, 3rd week and post intervention. Pre and post comparison of following three outcome measures was done.
Outcome measures: Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, 10RM and Chair stand test.
Result: Paired t-test was done. Results of p value for 10RM (p value = 0.00), Tinetti performance oriented mobility assessment (p value = 0.00) and chair stand test (p value = 0.01) was found to be highly significant. Out of 26 subjects with moderate risk of fall pre intervention, 24 subjects showed low risk of fall during post intervention assessment of Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment.
Conclusion: The Otago exercise programme is significantly effective increasing strength of lower limb and improving in balance, gait and therefore ultimately preventing fall in community dwelling Indian elder people. Hence, Otago exercise protocol can be used in day to day clinical practice and also as a home exercise program.
Key words: Otago Exercise Programme, Strength, Balance, Elderly People, Fall, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, 10RM, Chair stand test
Wadugodapitiya .S .I, Weerasinghe .V .S, Suraweera .H .J, Kudagammana .S .T
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67744
Pages : 640-645
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common conditions in childhood causing severe physical disability. Spastic paresis is the most common form of CP. According to the topographic classification, CP is divided into spastic hemiplegia, diplegia and quadriplegia. Distribution of functional motor disability is varied in each type of CP.
Aims: To describe functional motor disability in children with cerebral palsy using standard scales.
Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 93 children with cerebral palsy (CP). Functional motor disability of each type of spastic CP was assessed using standard scales.
Results: The dominant sub-type of cerebral palsy in the present study was spastic diplegia. Most affected muscle with spasticity was gastrocnemius-soleus group of muscles. Active range of motion of foot eversion and dorsiflexion were the most affected movements in all the types of CP. In the overall sample, only 35% were able to walk independently. Majority of subjects with quadriplegia were in levels III and IV of Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale representing severe disability. There was a significant relationship observed between the muscle tone and range of motion of their corresponding joints as well as between the muscle tone of gastrocnemius-soleus group of muscles and the ankle components of Observational Gait Analysis.
Conclusions: Results of the present study confirms the clinical impression of disability levels in each type of CP and showed that the assessment of functional motor disability in children with different types of spastic CP is useful in planning and evaluation of treatment options.
Key words: Cerebral palsy, disability, standard scales, evaluation, relationship
Venkatanaga Prahalada Karnati, Ramadevi Maddirala, Ammar Mohammed Ali Mohammed
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67745
Pages : 646-651
Background: Mirror therapy is a relatively new therapeutic intervention that focuses on moving the unimpaired limb. In stroke patients, it involves performing movements of the unimpaired limb while watching its mirror reflection superimposed over the (unseen) impaired limb, thus creating a visual illusion of enhanced movement capability of the impaired limb. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy on upper extremity motor recovery, spasticity and hand related functions of patients with sub-acute stroke.
Methods: The clinical trial was conducted at the department of Physiotherapy (SIMS College of Physiotherapy, Guntur), for the duration of 6 weeks. Thirty patients divided into two groups: Group A: Experimental treated with mirror therapy along with conventional therapy and Group B: Control group treated with conventional physiotherapy only. Data analyzed using SPSS, Mean, SD and T test for independent samples used.
Results: Comparison of pre-treatment and post treatment scores of experimental group of Brunnstrom stages showed extremely significant; while the control groupconsidered not significant. For Modified Ashworth Scale the pretreatment and post, treatment scores of experimental and control groupswere extremely significant. In addition, Functional Independence Measure showed extremely significant for experimental group and not significant for the control group.
Conclusions: Mirror therapy shared and a predictable rehabilitation program enhanced upper-extremity motor recovery and functioning in our sub-acute stroke inpatients. It is beneficial in improving the effects and outcome on upper extremity motor recovery and function.
Keywords: MIRROR THERAPY, HAND FUNCTIONS, STROKE PATIENTS.
Rahul Shaik, Kamala Kumari.P, Syed Ahmed Basha
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67746
Pages : 652-657
Background: The principle features of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. There is little evidence that confirms that Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is arising purely from child rearing methods or social factors.76 % of children with ADHD has a family history, and the similar cases can be seen in the family. The symptoms of more than 50 % of ADHD children will continue in adulthood which requires treatment. Most of the causes appear for ADHD are categorizing the condition in a group of neurobiological and genetic disorders. This does not mean to say that the influence of environmental factors on the severity of disorder, impairment and suffering the child may experience is nil, but those factors do not give rise to the condition by themselves. The chances of getting associated problems like Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children with ADHD is one-third to one-half and ODD is more common in boys with ADHD. These children are often non compliant, stubborn, defiant, have outbursts of temper, or become belligerent.
Case description: This is a case report of a child who diagnosed as attention deficit hyper active disordered and Oppositional Defiant Disordered (ODD) child, with finger contractures of right hand, which treated with medications, behavioral therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation techniques and music therapy as the means of rehabilitation.
Outcome measures: The evaluation measures used are Nine-hole peg test, behavioral rating scale and a seven items temperament evaluation scale.
Discussion: A holistic rehabilitation therapy increased attention, listening to suggestions, short stories and sleeping in time. Oppositional behaviors were also reduced both at home and school. Her relationships with parent, teachers and school mates were improved. Listening skills, attention, daily activities such as wake up, brushing, bathing, going to school in time were also improved. The single case study design limits generalization but this work supports THE role of multi disciplinary approach in testing ADHD children.
Key words: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disordered (ODD), rehabilitation, Behavioral therapy, Physiotherapy, Music therapy, Yoga and Relaxation techniques.
Vinod Babu .K, Akshata Akalwadi, Sai Kumar. N, Unadkat Mona Mahendrabhai
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67747
Pages : 658-666
Background: Neurodynamics sliding technique (NDST) and Mulligan bent leg raise technique (MBLR) both have been individually advocated for increasing hamstring flexibility but comparison of these techniques have not been found in studies. The purpose of the study was to find immediate effect of neurodynamic sliding technique versus mulligan bent leg raise technique on hamstring flexibility in asymptomatic individuals.
Methods: An Experimental study designs, with two group 80 asymptomatic normal subjects were randomized 40 subjects into each NDST group and MBLR group. NDST group received Neurodynamic sliding technique and MBLR group received Mulligan bent leg raise technique; passive straight leg raise was taken as outcome measure pre and post intervention.
Results: When means of post intervention were compared there is statistically significant difference in means of passive SLR ROM within the groups but there is no statistically significant difference in post intervention means between the groups.
Conclusion: It is concluded that both NDST and MBLR technique are effective on improving hamstring flexibility for asymptomatic individuals with limited SLR ROM. However there is no significant difference in improvement in hamstring flexibility between the groups.
Key words: Neurodynamic sliding technique, Mulligan bent leg raise technique, straight leg raise test, range of motion, muscle tightness, Hamstring flexibility.
Sai Kumar .N, Akshata Akalwadi, Vinod Babu .K, Zubair Rafiq Wani
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i4/67748
Pages : 667-675
Background: Sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) is a common problem that causes pain and disability. Adductor pull back exercise is widely used for treating sacroiliac joint dysfunction. No yet research has been directly examined the efficacy of adductor pull back exercise for sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The purpose of the study to find the efficacy of adductor pull back exercise on pain and functional disability for subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.
Methods: An experimental study design, 40 subjects with unilateral Sacroiliac joint dysfunction were randomized into two groups: study group (n=20), and control group (n=20). Subjects in study group received adductor pull back exercise along with conventional exercise and Subjects in control group received conventional exercise. The duration of treatment was given for two weeks, three times a day, total six days per week. Outcome measures such as pain was measured using Visual analog scale (VAS), and functional disability was measured using Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire (ODI) before and after 2 weeks of the treatment in both the groups.
Results: When means were analyzed using Independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test, there is a statistically significant improvements in means of VAS, and ODI within the groups. When means were compared using Independent ‘t’ and Mann Whitney U test, there is a significant difference in post-means of VAS and ODI between the groups.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that the 2 weeks of adductor pull back exercise along with conventional exercise found statistically and clinically significant effect on improving pain, functional disability for subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Adductors pull back exercise along with conventional exercise techniques shown to have greater percentage of improvement in improving pain and functional disability for subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.
Key words: sacroiliac joint dysfunction, adductor pull back exercise, conventional back exercise, Pain, functional disability.