[International Journal of Physiotherapy 2015; 2(6) : 877-1120] RSS



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Rahul Pandey, Anamika pandey

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80743

Pages : 877-884

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Background: Even early in Eye disease, children have reduced economy of activity of daily living. Early eye examination, diagnosis and management will reduce the consequences of other system originated by eye problems. The current literature is aimed to provide and explore the knowledge of Pediatric Physical Therapist about pediatric eye examination. This will help in early detection of any eye disorder and in good prognosis of visual health, physical growth, social and mental health as well.
Methods: The data and contents of current literature have been explored from different webpages, books and by personnel experience in pediatric physical therapy and optometry.
Results: In the beginning disclosure and immediate treatment of ocular diseases in children is necessary to prevent lifelong visual deterioration. Checkup of the eyes should be carrying out early in the neonates period and at all well-child visits. Neonates should be checked for ocular structural abnormalities, such as cataract, corneal opacity, and ptosis, which are known to cause in visual problems. Every child who are bring into being have an ocular anomaly or who fail vision examination should be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist or an eye care specialist appropriately trained to treat pediatric patients.
Conclusions: Children account for a large and growing percentage of the population of the India. Studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of eye and vision disorders is substantial in this group. Researches also reveal that early detection and intervention are particularly important in children because of the very quick development of the visual system in early childhood and its sensitivity to interference. When disorders such as amblyopia and squint are undetected, the long-term consequences can be serious in terms of quality of life, comfort, appearance, and career opportunities.
Keywords: Asthenopia, Bruckener Test; Confrontation test; Hirschberg test; Refractive error; stereopsis; Version test; Visual Acuity; Visual milestone.

M.Seshagirirao, K.L.V.R.Susmitha, K.Suvarna Sundari

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80780

Pages : 885-893

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Background: Low back pain is one of the common complaints seen in cricketers. Core stability is defined as the ability to control the position and motion of the trunk over the pelvis to allow optimum production, transfer and control of force and motion to the terminal segment in integrated athletic activities and generally given as treatment in many instances. No randomized controlled studies were there for low back pain in cricketers. So, purpose of this study was to know the efficacy of Swiss ball(SB), Thera-band(TB), and Floor exercises(FE) in cricketers with low back pain.
Methods: Sixty male competitive cricket players between 15-35 years age were randomly assigned into 4 groups. SB (n=15), TB (n=15), FE (n=15), control group (n=15). Analysis of data within group and between groups of the pre and post treatment values of pain-disability(Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire) and core strength(double-leg lowering test) was done statistically using t test and ANOVA test.
Results: The results of within group analysis, showed extremely significant improvement in terms of pain & disability and back strength (p<0.0001) in all the groups, whereas in between groups, TB(theraband) group showed significant improvement compared to SB(swissball), FE(floor-exercise) and control groups.
Conclusion: The results revealed that Thera-band (TB) group had better improvement than the other three groups in decreasing low back pain and improving core stability.
Keywords: Low back pain, Core stability, Swiss ball, Thera-band, Floor exercise, Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire, Double leg lowering test, Cricketers.

Shameela .T .V, Veena Pais, Shaikhji Saad, Nusaibath M

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80745

Pages : 894-898

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Background: Among health care workers the highest level of work related back injuries are more affected in nurses. There were many studies done to assess low back pain by using different tools. So this study aimed to identify the prevalence low back pain disability among female nursing professionals and the association between BMI, functional reach test and low back pain, so that a better tool can be used during the clinical examination for the betterment of the patient. The objective of the study is to identify the prevalence of low back pain disability, the association of Low Back Pain(LBP) with BMI and functional reach test among female nursing professionals.
Methods: A total of 256 subjects were assessed for disability due to back pain using OswestryLBP Disability Questionnaire and the prevalence of disability was determined. The sit and reach test, forward reach test and their BMI were calculated for those who had a disability score of 20 and above (n=87).
Results: Data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation.The study result showed a significant correlation (p=0.03) of sit and reach test with low back pain disability scores. There was a negative correlationseen among BMI and LBP disability score forward reach test and LBP disability score, and BMI and no low back pain disability score.
Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP disability among nursing professionals was 33.9%. This study suggest that sit and reach test can be used as an indicator of low back pain. Whereas BMI and forward reach test do not indicate low back pain.
Keywords: Low back pain, BMI, Sit and reach test, Forward reach test, Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire, Female Nurses.

Dilpreet Kaur, Ravi Gupta, Shikha

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80746

Pages : 899-904

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Background: Decreased core stability displaces center of gravity away from base of support reducing activity participation of athlete. Present study was conducted to study the effect of core stabilization exercises after reconstruction surgery of ACL on functional outcomes.
Methods: 30 subjects following 5 months of ACL reconstruction were randomly assigned to either group that performed (study group) or did not performed (control group) additional core stabilization exercises in conjugation with standard rehabilitation protocol. Outcome measures were: activity level using Tegnar activity level scale and functional performance using triple hop test. Outcome measures were compared at day 1 and day 42 of the treatment.
Result: Significant improvement was seen in the study group for Tegnar score with mean difference changing from 4.5 to 1.5 from day 1 to day 42 of treatment (p=0.039) while the control group showed improvement in mean difference changing from 3.8 to 1.4 (p=.045) from day 1 to day 42 of treatment. Highly significant improvement was seen in the study group for triple hop test with mean difference changing from 25 to 6.7 (p<.001) compared to the control group with mean difference changing from 15.2 to 9.7(p=.005) from day 1 to day 42 of treatment.
Conclusions: Both the groups showed improvement for activity level and functional performance but highly significant improvement was seen in the study group for functional performance. Core stabilization exercises in conjugation with the standard ACL rehabilitation protocol results better improvement in the triple hop test.
Keywords: ACL rehabilitation, Core-stabilization, Activity level, Functional performance.

Sandeep Kaur, Kavita Sudhakar, Sandeep Gupta

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80747

Pages : 905-910

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Background: The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders has increased markedly with promotion of industrial life. It is one of the causes of absenteeism of employees from their work and significantly affecting their quality of life. The prevalence is not known in profession such as security guards, whose occupation comprises of prolonged standing mainly.
Methods: A cross sectional survey was administered to 100 security guards in Guru Gobind Singh Super Thermal plant, Ropar, Punjab, India, using a self-structured questionnaire.
Results: 100 security guards included in the study were in the age group of 30-50 years. 58% of the guards were alcoholic while only 19% were smokers. Out of 100 respondents, 68% had complained of MSDs in different areas while 32% did not complain of any musculoskeletal discomfort. Out of 68 security guards who had MSDs, majority of the guards had back pain42.6% . Higher prevalence of MSDs, 97.1% (33/34) had been found in 46-50 years of age, followed by age group of 41-45 years where the prevalence was 76.2%(16/21).The most common risk factor in our study identified was opening the gate again and again (98.5%) which could be due to the nature of their duty. Most common used coping strategy (69.9%) was to change from standing to sitting position when MSDs aggravates.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is significant (68%) prevalence of MSDs in security guards. Demographic variables such as age, smoking and alcohol consumption have been found out to be contributing risk factors.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal disorders, WMSDs, Security guards, physical disability,Nordic Questionnaire

M. Sivaprasad, K.Madhavi

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80748

Pages : 911-916

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Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer among men and third most among women in world wide. For over 100 years, gastric cancer has remained one of the most important malignant diseases with significant, geographical, ethnic and socio-economic differences in distribution. The main aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of supervised aerobic exercises on severity of fatigue, activities of daily living and aerobic fitness in post gastrectomy individuals undergoing chemotherapy.
Methods: Total sixty patient’s age 30 to 68 years post gastrectomy individuals undergoing chemotherapy included for study. These patients were randomly allocated to intervention group (n=30), which underwent a 4- weeks training programme of supervised aerobic exercises & control group (n=30) that received standard care and unsupervised aerobic exercise protocol. Primary outcome was change in fatigue levels as determined by fatigue severity scale in before and after the intervention program. Secondary outcomes were activities of daily living and aerobic fitness as assessed by the dukes activity status index and six minute walk test by using cahalin formula. Paired sample t- test was used to analyse changes from before and after intervention programme.
Result: There is a statistically significant (p<.000) improvement in both variables from baseline to 4th week in experimental group and control group but compared to control group, experimental group shows highly significant values in all parameters.
Conclusion: Aerobic exercise proved to be effective in improving aerobic fitness, activities of daily living and decreasing the fatigue in post gastrectomy individuals undergoing chemotherapy.
Keywords: Gastric cancer, H. Pylori (helicobacter pylori), activities of daily living (ADL’S), six minute walk test (6MWT), fatigue severity scale (FSS), Japanese gastric cancer association (JGCA), lymph node ratio (LNR).

Sejal Bheda, Mariya Prakash Jiandani

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80749

Pages : 917-924

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Background: Anxiety and depression are proven independent predictors of mortality, disability, and reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL). Hence, this study was undertaken with aim to find the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to find out its association with various psychosocial factors.
Methods: Stable patients admitted during 3 month period in Cardiology Intensive care unit of tertiary care Hospital with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction were included in this cross sectional study. Data was collected using a Semi- structured questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) .Scores were analyzed using SPSS version 16.
Results: A total of 75 patients (73.3% men and 26.7% women) with mean age 54.86 ± 9.91 years were included. Mean scores of anxiety and depression were 4.49 and 4.0 out of 21, respectively. Probable cases of anxiety and depression as per HADS were 29.33% and 21.33% respectively. There was a statistically significant association of Anxiety and depression with gender (P= 0.004(A), P= 0.002(D); education [P=0.018(A), P= 0.002 (D)]; and pre-existing known stressor [P=<0.001 (A) and P=0.002(D)]. The association of anxiety and depression with age, addiction, presence of co-morbidies and previous history of AMI / stroke was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: Anxiety and depression are common after AMI. It was seen more in females, low literacy and those with pre-existing known cause of stress (stressor). Hence, psychological screening should be incorporated in routine assessment in patients with AMI during hospitalization to plan early intervention that could potentially improve recovery pattern.
Keywords: Anxiety, Depression, Acute myocardial infarction, HADS, psychological screening, gender

Kothalanka Viswaja, Kiran Prakash Pappala, Pilladi R Sri Tulasi, Patchava Apparao

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80750

Pages : 925-932

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Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population.
Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks.
Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P<0.04) and Swiss ball group (P<0.03). The level of significance between groups was (P >0.5).
Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.
Keywords: Stroke, Trunk Training, Swiss Ball, Sitting Balance, Gait, Conventional physiotherapy.

Hany M. I. Elgohary, Ibrahim E Abdelzaher

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80751

Pages : 933-938

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Background: Urinary incontinence UI is an involuntary leakage of urine due to loss of bladder control which is a common and often embarrassing problem that may cause tremendous emotional distress. Prevalence and risk factors depend on baseline physiological mechanisms, including weakness of pelvic floor muscles, hyperactive bladder that may result in urge UI, poor urethral sphincter function associated with stress UI, and impaired structural and functional integrity of pudendal nerve activity, associated with Pelvic floor muscle weakness plays an important role in UI etiology. Pelvic floor muscles work to support the bladder neck in the intra- abdominal cavity and maintain urinary continence. Weakness of these muscles leads the bladder to shift to the extra-abdominal cavity and thus a change in the urethra-vesicle angle occurs.
Methods: Group (A) twenty participants who received behavioral training (BT) pelvic floor exercises (PFE) and interferential current, group (B) twenty participants who received BT, PFE and posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and group (C) twenty participants who received BT, PFE and placebo interferential current. Urodynamic and cystometric measures including bladder volume at first desire to void, maximum cystometric capacity, and pressure at maximum flow rate were measured before and after intervention.
Results: Results of this study revealed that there was a statistical significant difference in bladder volume at first desire to void, maximum cystometric capacity, and pressure at maximum flow rate in favor of participants who received a combination of BT, PFE and interferential current compared with those who received a combination of BH and PFE with either posterior tibial nerve stimulation or placebo interferential current.
Conclusion: Interferential current is better than posterior tibial nerve stimulation in the rehabilitation of urinary incontinence.
Keywords: Urinary Incontinence, Interferential current, Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation, Urodynamics

Maciej Gagat, Magdalena Izdebska, Marta Ha as-Wisniewska, Monika Struensee, Marcin Struensee, Anna Klimaszewska-Wisniewska, Alina Grzanka

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80752

Pages : 939-946

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Background: The aim of this report was to determine the effects of electrical stimulation and laser radiation on non-small lung cancer (A549) and Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line (CHO AA8). Furthermore, we also analyzed viability and size of the extracellular spaces in CHO AA8 and A549 cells.
Methods: In order to evaluate the cell viability Tali® Image-Based Cytometer was used. The material (non-small lung cancer cell – A549 and Chinese Hamster Ovary – CHO AA8) was evaluated by the light and confocal fluorescence microscope.
Results: The data demonstrated that exposure to both electrical stimulation and laser radiation for 3 and 5 minutes showed non statistical differences in the percentage of live cells. The morphological abnormalities and microfilaments reorganization indicated induction non apoptotic type of cell death such as mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, CHO AA8 as non-cancerous cells exhibited lower sensitivity
for laser and electrical stimulation in comparison to A549 cell line.
Conclusions: Our results confirmed contraindicated the use of these methods, especially due to an increase of the risk of metastasis. Moreover, our study suggests that the laser radiation and electrical stimulation may have limited applications in the cancer patients and that choice of these treatment methods should be used in carefully selected patients.
Keywords: electrical stimulation, laser radiation, F-actin, A549, CHO AA8, metastasis

Athanasia Laiou, Anna Christakou, Vaios Kaminiotis

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80753

Pages : 947-957

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Background: Hippotherapy is a physical treatment strategy with the help of horses and refers to the use of horse’s movement as a treatment tool for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Hippotherapy refers to the incorporation of equine movement by physiotherapists, occupational therapists and speech therapists. The present qualitative study investigated the impacts of hippotherapy on Greek children with Cerebral Palsy from parents’ perspective due to their better understanding of child’s special needs.
Methods: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 participants. An interview topic guide and introductory closed questions were used to conduct the study. Thematic analysis of the qualitative interview data was carried out. Five themes were revealed from the interview process.
Results: The results of this qualitative research provides evidence that hippotherapy is a promising intervention strategy having physical and psychological benefits for children with CP. Hippotherapy improved children’s daily activities, their independence and, in general, a better quality of life has been attained, while no negative impacts has been identified. The impacts of these results were discussed in relationship with relative published research. Additionally, new insights were provided. The professionalism and qualification of clinical specialist in hippotherapy were crucial and they influence positively the results of hippotherapy. This study also provided new insights into the context of the relationship-cooperation between clinical specialist in hippotherapy and child, and the financial factor participating in a hippotherapy programme.
Conclusion: Discussion concerning the clinical implications of the present findings and suggestions for future research were provided. Future research should be conducted to provide a clear definition of what hippotherapy is meaning globally.
Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, Parents’ perspective, Hippotherapy, Therapeutic riding, Occupational therapists, Physiotherapists.

Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed Ewidea, Tamer Mohamed Ahmed Ewidea, Hossam Eldien Gad, Hany Hamed

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80754

Pages : 958-966

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Background: Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability in the knee joint. This study investigated the efficacy of Dextrose iontophoresis versus Dextrose prolotherapy in case of knee osteoarthritis in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study.
Methods: sixty patients diagnosed mild to moderate osteoarthritis were included in the study. Their age's were45:65 years with mean age 51 ± 3.5 years. Patients were divided randomly into three equal groups, group (A)received 50 % dextrose iontophoresis, group (B) Each patient received three intra-articular injections of dextrose at 1-month intervals in weeks 0, 4, and 8 and group (C ) received sham iontophoresis. The outcome measurements were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities arthritis index (WOMAC) values, knee ROM, and pain severity at rest (seated) and in activity (after walking 6 m) using the visual analogue scale (VAS) were recorded. The patients were evaluated for these parameters before allocated in their groups then after 4, 8, and 24 weeks later.
Results: compared to sham group (placebo) there were significant improvement of VAS and ROM of iontophoresis group than sham (placebo) group (p<0.000). Also there were significant improvement of prolotherapy group than placebo (p<0.006, and 0.02) respectively. Furthermore there was significant improve of iontophoresis group than prolotherapy where p was <0.000 for VAS, ROM and (WOMAC).
Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that both dextrose iontophoresis and dextrose prolotherapy may be as useful modalities in treatment of osteoarthritis with better effects of dextrose iontophoresis than prolotherapy.
Keywords: dextrose, prolotherapy, iontophoresis, knee osteoarthritis, range of motion, intra-articular injections.

Vibhuti kiran shah, Mugdha Oberoi, Veena krishnanand

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80755

Pages : 967-971

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Background: 6Minute walk test (MWT) has been used as a performance based measure of functional exercise capacity in all populations including healthy adults. 6MWT is recommended out of other all timed walked tests due to its reproducibility and ease of administration compared to other longer or shorter time duration tests. It detects changes following interventions to improve exercise tolerance in healthy individuals, to assess the fitness level, used as intervention to improve walking endurance and as predictor of objectively measured aerobic fitness in healthy adults. It is essential to know a level of fitness healthy adults possess in our community, thus aim of this study was to evaluate response to 6MWT in young healthy adults.
Method: 50 healthy individuals (25 males and 25 females) of 18 - 30 years of age were recruited. The 6MWT was performed as per standard guidelines. All subjects were assessed for the outcome measures by principal investigator at baseline i.e. before and post- 6MWT for following parameters. BP, PR, RR, SPO2, RPE.
Results: The mean 6 minute walked distance (6MWD) was 635.6+59.07, for men it was 675.0+46.88 and for women it was 596.5+41.41. Out of study population 18% of people covered 70%-80%, 54% people covered 80%-90% and 28% people covered 90%-100% of their predicted distance. Oxygen saturation remained unaltered throughout the walk. Mean resting and walking spo2 values were 96.80+13.55% and 96.71+13.55% (p-value: 0.2288). Pulse rate (PR) and respiratory rate (RR) were affected by the walk. Mean resting and walking PR was 79.82+9.18 and 142.6+19.62 (p-value: 0.0001) and RR was 18.48+2.78 and 30.20+4.35 (p-value: 0.0001) respectively. Mean resting and walking systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in males as compared to females.
Conclusion: The 6 minute walk test is a useful measure of functional capacity in healthy adults. There was a difference between predicted distance covered and actual distance covered at the end of 6 minute walk test in study population. There was a significant difference between responses of males and females elicited during 6 MWT.
Keywords: 6MWT, young healthy adults, normal response, functional capacity, timed walk test, predicted distance.

Pallabi Goswami, Prabhu, Ujjwal Bhattacharya, Kritica Boruah

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80756

Pages : 972-980

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Background: Subjects with moderate disability in Parkinson’s disease experience difficulty when they are required to walk while attending to a complex activity. These subjects have a tendency to fall which is related to the disease symptoms and also may be due to age factor. This study is intended to predict the future falls in Parkinson’s disease. Subjects with moderate disability were assessed with the Tinnetti mobility test and Timed up and go test, where the number of falls will be correlated with each test scores to check which test can predict the future falls better.
Method: The participants in the study were 30 Parkinson’s Disease subjects, out of which 12 subjects did not meet the inclusion criteria, remaining 18 subjects were assessed with Tinnetti mobility test and Timed Up and Go test. For each subject scores were documented. The study was done for a duration of 1 year. During this time subjects were allowed to document the number of falls. These numbers of falls were correlated with each test scores for the prediction of falls.
Results: Pearson correlation test has been done to correlate the number of falls with each test score and found that Tinnetti mobility test is negatively correlated to the number of falls that is - .847 and Timed Up and Go test is positively related that is 0.924. The correlation result with each test score were statistically significant (p<0.01) but Timed Up and Go test score was found to be more significant compared to Tinnetti mobility test scores.
Conclusion: The analysis shows that Timed Up and Go test is a better predictor of falls than Tinnetti mobility test which is showing statistical significance (p<0.01) in case of Parkinson’s disease patients.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, Timed up & Go (TUG), Tinetti Mobility Test (TMT), fall in Parkinson’s disease.

Rahul Pandey, Anamika Pandey

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80757

Pages : 981-986

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Background: Asthma is an inflammatory clutter of the airways that causes wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. In India, approximate calculation indicates a prevalence of between 10% and 15% in 5-11 year old children. Modern Western treatment focuses on controlling asthma with two classes of medication corticosteroids and bronchodilatorss. Another plan of action for reducing and potentially even throw out asthma manifestation affects manipulation of the craniosacral fascial system. This system is a unification of the craniosacral and fascial or connective tissue part. This idea can help in making clear the greatly high rate of achievement with manual therapy in pediatric asthma.
Methods: In this case report first I have taken a brief history of the patient condition after the full assessment like brain cycle rhythm, chest and systemic. I have given cranio sacral therapy, Intercostal release, PNF for diaphragm release on child for seven sitting of about 45 minutes of each session.
Results: After completion of treatment session of seven sitting his lungs to be bright of any wheezing or other impediment. Brain cycle was of 90 seconds. His peak flow meter readings were between 250 and 300 Liters/minute, which were in a satisfactory range for him. The physician suggested that at this point there was no requirement for any additional asthma medicines.
Conclusion: It comes into sight that the loss to the respiratory system caused by fascial burden early in life may be fully reversible, if treated immediately. The latent grace of this interdependent approach is that it crop up to address the pathological origin of asthma.
Keywords: Asthma; Craniosacral therapy; Fascial strain; Fascial therapy; wheezing.

Hafiz Muhammad hussain, Shireen rahat khanzada, Kashmala khan, Atiq_ur_rehman memon, Jam feroz, Syed zulqarnain ali, Ahson khwaja

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80758

Pages : 987-991

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Background: Students tends to develop poor posture as their work requires prolong sitting, such as in taking lectures, working on computer, lab activities, assignments using laptops etc. Sitting for prolong periods of time in front of computer resulting in various types of muscular pain which are due to in appropriate computer ergonomics and poor body posture. The objective of the study is to evaluate the awareness of good working posture and computer ergonomics among medical students of isra university, Hyderabad.
Methods: A cross sectional study has done on 100 medical students of Isra University Hyderabad. Study was convenient and self-structured questionnaire used. Data analysis was done by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 14 version
Results: Questionnaires of 100 participants were completed and returned back for analysis (response rate of 100%). 80% students said they are aware of good posture and computer ergonomics but only 34% selected the right answer regarding good posture.66% students are habitual to use support while using computer, especially back support and ergonomic chair only.55% students said they never had their posture assessed.
Conclusion: This study reveals that majority of students clamed to aware of good posture but their answerers has shown that there is lack of knowledge regarding good posture. Students are habitual to use support while sitting which is limited to use of back support and chair and still they need to know the principles of computer ergonomics regarding screen, mouse, keyboard, and overall work station.
Keywords: Poor posture, ergonomics, computer usage, muscular pain, physical activity, spinal deformity

Farida Garba Sumaila, Kabir Isah Mayana, Zainab Adam Abubakar

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80759

Pages : 992-998

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Background: The elderly population is growing, both in size and proportion with the total population and fall is a major problem for elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of falls among elderly.
Methodos: A cross sectional survey with Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 100 elderly persons, 52 male and 48 female, 65 years and above. A modified self administered closed ended questionnaire was used. The data obtained were summarized using descriptive statistics of mean and Standard Deviation. Inferential statistics of Chi square, phi and Cramer’s V were used to analyze the data.
Result: The result showed that 49% of the elderly had one or more falls with 65.3%falls occurring once and 34.7% occurring two or more times. Women fall more than men, accounting for 61.2% and 38.8% of the population respectively. A significant association was found between fall, age, sex, and reduced balance.
Conclusion: The study concluded that there is high prevalence of falls in elderly with women experiencing more fall than men. It is recommended that modifications in the environment, counseling to the elderly and their families should be done to prevent further falls.
Keywords: Prevalence, correlates, fall, Elderly, Dawakinkudu, local government, Kano.

Farida Garba Sumaila, Kabir Isah Mayana, Bashir Bello, Aminu Munzali Sharif

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80760

Pages : 992-1005

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Background: Low back pain (LBP) is regarded as the commonest musculoskeletal problem in the world which affects people across various strata of the society from lay men on the street to teachers as well as health care providers in health institutions. Therefore the purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of low back pain and back education awareness among secondary school teachers in Kano Metropolis.
Methodos: 200 questionnaires were distributed and only 157 were retrieved, one out of which 4 were invalid because of incomplete data so that only 153 were relevant and used for analysis giving a return rate of 76.5%. The study revealed that 96 out of 153 respondents have low back pain implying 62.7% prevalence. The level of back ergonomic awareness on the other hand was found to be moderate (43.1%).
Results: Based on the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that there is a high prevalence of low back pain among secondary school teachers in Kano metropolis. However, the level of back ergonomic awareness is moderate.
Conclusion: Therefore proper intervention to prevent exposure to LBP among school teachers should be enhanced and teachers should be well educated on the importance of ergonomic intervention in their working environments.
Keywords: prevalence, low back pain, Back ergonomics, Awareness, teachers, kano, metropolis

Shamima Islam Nipa, Mohammad Mustafa Kamal Rahat Khan, Mohammad Sohrab Hossain, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Md. Shofiqul Islam

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80761

Pages : 1006-1011

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Background: Clinical reasoning is a thinking and decision making process which occur in clinical practice. It helps the health care providers to solve the clinical problem by using their reasoning process in an effective and efficient manner. Three track reasoning in one of the clinical reasoning process which includes the procedural, interactive and conditional reasoning to diagnose as well as ensure proper rehabilitation service according to patient and patient’s family members’ needs.
Methods: A single case based study through the three track reasoning process. The purpose of this study was to explore the management strategies of a Gullian Barrie Syndrome (GBS) patient through three track reasoning. We have tried to show how the basic idea behind the reasoning process helped to determine the reasoning process and diagnosis. However it has performed through theory and observation. We have also showed how we used the reasoning process through with the common sense reasoning. However it was the part of procedural reasoning in three track clinical reasoning. In three track reasoning, there is also interactive and procedural reasoning part through which we told patient story about his condition, identified his and his family members expectations and to establish hypothesis as GBS. So three track reasoning also supported us to do reasoning process rather than selecting another reasoning process.
Results: After analyzing the reasoning process it was identified that to be strict in a single reasoning process is very difficult. Clinical reasoning is the clinician’s ability through which they can consider the interpretation of different clinical findings. An expert clinician must have critical thinking skill rather than ignoring any symptoms or overemphasize the symptoms. In addition, patient’s knowledge, believes and reasoning was found an important part of clinical reasoning process in this study.
Conclusion: We have been practicing clinical reasoning in our day to day practice, but we were not conscious about it. That’s why we may not critically think about it at the time of dealing with this case. Thus, selecting three track clinical reasoning model the case was diagnosed and treated accordingly.
Keywords: Clinical reasoning, Knowledge, Cognition, Meta-cognition, Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS), Three Track Reasoning.

Askar P.V, Veena Pais, Nagarajan Mohan, Shaikhji Saad, Nusaibath M Shaikhji

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80762

Pages : 1012-1018

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Background: Hamstring stretch is an important part of treatment programs aimed at decreasing the likelihood of hamstring injury. Few studies have examine the effect of eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion(DROM) exercise in improving hamstring flexibility this study compares the effect of eccentric training and static stretching in improving hamstring flexibility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Eccentric training, Static stretching and Dynamic range of motion (DROM) exercise in improving hamstring flexibility and the second objective is find which technique is more effective in improving hamstring flexibility when compared with a control group. Study design is Experimental pre-test post-test design.
Methods: 88 male subjects with limited hamstring flexibility were recruited for this study were assigned to four group. Group1 received eccentric training, group2 received dynamic range of motion exercise, group3 received static stretching and group4 was served as control group. Hamstring length was measured pre intervention and post intervention using a self-monitored active knee extension test.
Results: Eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion exercise showed a significant increase in hamstring length between pre and post intervention. Following a between group analysis done by independent t test revealed a significant difference between group1 group2 and group3
Conclusion: It is concluded that eccentric training, dynamic range of motion (DROM) exercise and static stretching groups improved hamstring flexibility.
Keywords: Eccentric training, Dynamic range of motion (DROM), Active knee extension (AKE), Hamstring muscle, Flexibility, Static stretching

Shaik Raheem Saheb, Patchava Apparao, CH.Ashok Chakravarthy, CH.Ganapathi Swamy

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80763

Pages : 1012-1026

Abstract Fulltext Download PDF RSS Download Statistics(362) Views (462)


Background: Recently Cross body stretch and Sleeper stretch are used to improve internal rotation Range of motion in Shoulder Pathologies. It was proposed to study the effect of cross body stretch and sleeper stretch in subjects with periarthritis of shoulder.
Methods: 60 subjects with a mean age of 53 years having clinical diagnosis of Periarthritis of shoulder and full filled the inclusive criteria are taken. After the initial measurements, the subjects are randomly assigned into 2 stretching groups. Group-A performed the Sleeper stretch. Group-B performed a Cross body stretch. Both Groups performed the Stretch in Duration of 6weeks – once daily for 5 repetitions holding each stretch for 30 seconds for 5 days a week. Along with this technique conventional physiotherapy like IFT, overhead pulleys, Pendula exercises, Wall climbing exercises, mariners wheel exercises are performed. After the treatment, subjects were evaluated for their pain profile using visual analogue scale, Goniometer for measuring Range of motion.
Results: For within group comparison we used Paired t-test analysis, For Between group comparison we used Independent t-test for statistical analysis. At the end of 6 weeks It was found that subjects treated with cross-body stretch showed significant improvement in terms of VAS scores and Range of motion scores (P=0.000) and patients treated with Sleeper stretch showed significant improvement in terms of VAS scores and Range of motion scores (P=0.000). When compared between Groups the VAS and Range of motion scores showed a significant improvement in Cross body stretch Group than the Sleeper stretch Group (P=0.000).
Conclusion: It was concluded that both stretching techniques were found improvement in Range of motion and VAS and Cross-body Stretch showed more Significant improvement than the sleeper Stretch after 6 weeks treatment.

Key words: Stretch, VAS, Range of motion, cross body, GTO

Bruno Corrado, Marina Macca, Gianluca Ciardi, Clemente Servodio Iammarrone, Gerardino Schiro

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80764

Pages : 1027-1034

Abstract Fulltext Download PDF RSS Download Statistics(233) Views (267)


Background: The potential for early functional recovery in stroke patients is the basis for treatment choices and drives the rehabilitation. In this study we aimed to determine the predictive factors for short-term functional recovery in stroke patients admitted in a rehabilitation clinic.
Methods: We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective cohort study on 108 stroke patients at Campolongo Hospital for Rehabilitation. The short-term functional recovery of stroke patients has been studied by the Motricity Index (MI) and the Trunk Control Test (TCT) in respect of motor recovery, and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scale about disability. The influence of predictors on short-term functional recovery has been studied by Chi square test.
Results: All patients showed a good functional recovery at discharge. Statistically significant correlations have been found between patient’s age and the lack of trunk control at discharge (p = 0.0305), between patient’s age and the value of the Motricity Index at discharge (p = 0.0093), between the presence of aphasia and the severity of motor deficit at discharge (p = 0.0397), between the presence of neglect and the severity of motor deficit at both entry and discharge (p = 0.0051 and p = 0.0031).
Conclusion: Our experience suggests that a predictive model of the short-term functional prognosis in early stroke patients allows for the optimization of the treatment and the rehabilitation taking charge. The final result will be an improvement of the patient’s satisfaction and a rationalization in the use of available resources.
Keywords: stroke, functional recovery, predictors, short term recovery.

Eman S. Mansour, Xu J.Nian, Eman B. Salah

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2015/v2i6/80765

Pages : 1035-1040

Abstract Fulltext Download PDF RSS Download Statistics(242) Views (286)


Background: Acupuncture is an component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been used for three thousand years to treat diseases and relieve pain. Pain is found to be the most common reason for people to use acupuncture. Due to recent scientific findings, acupuncture treatment has been accepted worldwide. Numerous trials have been conducted especially in analgesia. The mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia has been widely investigated, however, the underlying mechanism still not clear. This article summarizes the central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic.
Method: We have focused on examining the recent literature on acupuncture analgesia. The central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. We focused on the studies related to central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia from these aspects: (neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuroanatomy).
Result: The result revealed that acupuncture act on various parts of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebral ganglia and cerebral cortex to alleviate pain. The central mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture include neurohumors and neurotransmitters, which are involved in analgesia. At spinal level, Spinal opioids, glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin are the key elements acupuncture-induced analgesia. At brain level, Endogenous opioid peptides, limbic system play essential roles in mediating the analgesia.
Conclusion: Acupuncture is an effective approach to pain management. There is good evidence in both experimental and clinical research that supports acupuncture efficacy in management of chronic pain through central nervous system. Acupuncture should be strongly used as a part of pain management plans. This work helps in improving our understanding of the scientific basis underlying acupuncture analgesia.
Keywords: Acupuncture; Traditional Chinese Medicine; Analgesia; Chronic pain; Central nervous system; Spinal cord.

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