[International Journal of Physiotherapy 2017; 4(5) : 262-318] RSS



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Christina Kampragkou, Paris Iakovidis, Eftychia Kampragkou, Eleftherios Kellis

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2017/v4i5/159420

Pages : 262-268

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Background: The Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and represents 60% of its cases. The disease is characterized by cognitive, non-cognitive and functional deficits and it’s incurable. The main of this study was to examine the effects of the aerobic exercise in combination with the music therapy and memory exercises in functional and cognitive ability on a patient with that have been affected by middle type (Second stage) of Alzheimer's disease.
Methods: Thirty patients from Chronic Diseases Center, with Alzheimer's disease, divided between an intervention and a control group, participated in this randomized controlled study. (Thirty patients with Alzheimer's were chosen from chronic disease center, and are divided into an intervention and a control group). The intervention requires 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, 10 minutes of memory games and music therapy, three times a week, for the duration of 12 weeks. The outcome measures the “Mini Mental State Examination” (MMSE) scale and the “Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive test” (ADAS) for the cognitive ability, “Katz Index Independence in Activities of Daily Living” (ADL), “Get up and Go test” and “One leg standing balance test” (OLST) for the functionality. A three-way analysis of variance designs was applied to compare changes in each outcome measure before and after the intervention between the groups.
Results: The MMSE score decrease significantly for the control group (males: 16.00 ± 4.04 to 15.14 ± 4.01 and for females: 16.00 ± 1.85 to 15.25 ± 1.98 before and after intervention) but not for the intervention group (p > 0.05) (males: 16.25 ± 2.71 to 16.12 ± 2.94 and females: 12.85 ± 2.67 to 12.57 ± 2.93). The ADAS score on intervention experimental therapy group was significantly low (males: 39.00 ± 7.98 to 37.50 ± 8.12 and females: 49.85 ± 6.54 to 48.28 ± 6.79). In the Get up and Go test (males: 18.87 ± 5.24 to 17.87 ± 4.15 and females: 19.85 ± 4.94 to 18.57 ± 4.64) and in the OLST(males: 4.57 ± 3.10 to 6.00 ± 2.77 and females: 4.00 ± 3.26 to 5.28 ± 3.40) there was a sign of progress in the results, while in the ADL no difference was observed in any group. (experimental group males: 3.50 ± 1.19 to 3.50 ± 1.19 and females: 2.57 ± 1.13 to 2.57 ± 1.13, control group males: 3.57 ± 1.51 to 3.57 ± 1.51 and females: 3.50 ± 0.75 to 3.50 ± 0.75).
Conclusion: The aerobic exercise combined with the music therapy and the memory tests offer some improvement in cognitive and functional ability and contribute to the deteriorating delay of the symptoms of patients that suffer from Alzheimer and are hospitalized.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; aerobic exercise; music therapy; functional ability; cognitive ability; elderly


DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2017/v4i5/159421

Pages : 269-277

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Background: Few studies have examined the effectiveness of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) for the paretic lower limb following stroke. This study aimed to investigate the effects of mCIMT on motor function of the lower limb in stroke patients.
Methods: A randomized, controlled study of 30 participants, who were randomized to 2 groups, was conducted. The study group received mCIMT, and the control group received neurodevelopmental therapy (NDT) for two weeks. All were evaluated for motor function through the Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC), Berg Balance Scale (BBS),10-Meter Walk Test, gait parameters (cadence and step length ratio) and postural symmetry ratio at pretreatment and post-treatment, like two times.
Results: The improvements in BBS score, postural symmetry ratio, step length ratio, cadence and walking velocity had greater in the study group than the control group (P < 0.05). The improvement of FAC score was more pronounced in the study group (P = 0.005).
Conclusion: mCIMT for paretic lower limb had superior effect against the NDT to enhance the motor function (gait parameters, balance, ambulation, and symmetry) in patients with stroke. mCIMT may be used as a new alternative treatment for lower limb rehabilitation.
Keywords: Modified constraint-induced movement therapy, gait, balance, stroke, lower limb, neurodevelopmental therapy.

Fariba Hossein Abadi, Gunathevan Elumalai, Mohansundar Sankaraval, Farizul Athir Bin Mohd Ramli

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2017/v4i5/159422

Pages : 278-283

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Background: Evidence revealed that aquatic exercises are safer than land-based exercises and it allows increased movement amplitude and energy expenditure for obese, middle-aged, or elderly people, it is important to ascertain the physiological effects of aqua aerobic exercise on health among the obese students. This study aimed to determine the effects of aqua aerobics exercise on cardiovascular fitness (VO2max and resting HR) and weight loss (weight, BMI, and WHR) among obese students.
Methods: Fifty healthy obese college students (22.28±1.83 years) with minimum BMI value of 28 kg.m-², voluntarily took part in this study. They have been divided randomly into an exercising group (n=25 and BMI=33.11±5.32kg.m-2) and control group (n=25 and BMI=33.64±3.12kg.m-2). The exercising group participated in an aqua aerobic exercise at 60-75% of maximum HR for 60 minutes, three times per week for 12 weeks. The changes (by pre and post-test) in weight, WHR, resting HR and VO2max were measured for both groups via In Body Scan 370, Polar heart rate monitor and Bleep test, respectively.
Results: There was a significant (p≤0.001) improved in weight loss (-8.78±3.61kg), and the changes of BMI (-3.24±1.1kg.m-2), WHR (-0.056±0.035), resting HR (-1.48±1.004 bmp), and VO2max (4.43±2.51 ml.kg-1. min-1) in the exercising group, compared to the control group. The results indicate that the aqua aerobic exercise is an effective way to enhance cardiovascular fitness and weight loss among obese students.
Conclusion: Aqua aerobic exercise as a favorable exercise environment for the obese can be advised such a significant intervention strategy for weight loss and improvement in cardiovascular fitness.
Keywords: aqua aerobics exercise, weight loss, resting HR, WHR, cardiovascular fitness, obese.

Mina Atef Georgui, Azza Abdelaziz Abdel Hady, Gamal Salaheldin Elmorsy, Gihan Samir Mohamed

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2017/v4i5/159423

Pages : 284-290

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Background: This study targeted at finding out the response of the vertebral artery blood flow to Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in elderly with cervical spondylosis.
Methods: Research involved forty patients, both men, and women, whose ages between 60 and 75 years, diagnosed as chronic cervical spondylosis associated with vertigo. Subjects were randomly assigned to two equivalent groups. Group (1), Study Group, received low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a wavelength of 830 nm and power of 200 mW on vertebral artery bilaterally. Group (2), the control group, received only sham laser (placebo). Both groups received three sessions per week for two months. Blood flow in both vertebral arteries was estimated by measuring Resistivity Index using ultrasound Doppler, and vertigo was assessed by visual vertigo analogue scale. The assessment was done pre and
Results: The outcomes of this study revealed highly significant difference between G1 and G2 in post-treatment values of resistivity index of both left and right vertebral arteries (p=0.0008 & 0.0002 respectively) as well as in visual vertigo analogue scale (p=0.0001), while comparing pretreatment values showed no significant differences between G1 and G2 (p=0.329, 0.3795 & 0.2518 respectively). In study group (G1), there was a significant decrease in resistivity index of both left and right vertebral arteries, as well as significant decrease in vertigo. Percentages of improvement were (↓12.28%), (↓13.98%) and (↓64.24%) respectively, which means enhancement of blood flow through vertebral arteries. While (G2) showed a non-significant decrease in resistivity index of the left vertebral artery (↓3.96%), right vertebral artery (↓2.87%), and vertigo (↓10.22%).
Conclusion: LLLT with parameters used in this study, improved blood flow through vertebral artery bilaterally and alleviated vertigo in elderly with cervical spondylosis.
Keywords: Low-level laser therapy; vertebral artery; resistivity index; vertigo; cervical spondylosis; elderly.

Anusha Reddy, Arunachalam R, Anitha A

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2017/v4i5/159424

Pages : 291-295

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Background: The trunk plays a vital role in limb excursion and manipulation. Hence core muscle strength invariably affects the performance of the upper extremity skills. Thus this study tried to determine the correlation between core muscle strength and hand-eye coordination in non-athletes with low back pain.
Methods: 20 nonathletic subjects with low back pain were selected based on the selection criteria. Day 1 core muscle strength was assessed using Plank Test and Sorensen Test. Day 2 hand-eye coordination was assessed using Alternate Wall Toss Test and Simultaneous Ball Throw Test. A rest period of 2 hours was given between both the tests.
Results: Pearson’s Correlation analysis was doe to find the relationship between the scales. The correlation analysis of plank test and AWT reveled r = 0.8 with significant difference (p <0.003). The analysis of plank test and SBT revealed r=0.7 with significant difference (p <0.011). The correlation analysis of Sorensen test and AWT revealed r= 0.8 with significant difference (p <0.008). The analysis of Sorensen Test and SBT revealed r=0.7 with significant difference (p<0.005).
Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a strong positive correlation between the Core Muscle Strength and Hand-Eye Coordination in nonathletes with Low Back Pain
Keywords: Low back pain, Non-athletes, Core muscle strength, Hand-eye coordination, Alternate Wall Toss Test, Plank Test, Simultaneous Ball Throw Test, Sorensen Test.

Pathmanathan K. Suppiah, Tomny Wong Kee Kiet, Rabiu Muazu Musa, Mohamad Razali Abdullah, Jeffrey Low Fook Lee, Ahmad Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2017/v4i5/159425

Pages : 296-301

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Background: Expert athletes in archery can rapidly achieve postural stability compared to beginners and novice athletes. This study investigated the effectiveness of a core stability training program in reducing the postural sway among adolescent archers.
Methods: Participants (n=12) of this study were aged between 13-18 years; were divided into two groups (i.e., experimental and control). The experimental group underwent a supplementary eight-week core stability training program apart from their regular training program. Data were collected at three-time points; pre, after four weeks and post-training. Postural sway was measured in the anteroposterior plane and medio-lateral plane – center of pressure (CoP).
Results: Mixed factorial ANOVA yielded significant interactions over time in the performance of the push up; plank; archery performance and postural sway. Postural sway between the experimental and control group was significantly different on both planes at T2; (CoP range x - F(1,10) = 7.952, p <.05, d = 1.302; CoP range y - T2; F(1,10) = 7.887, p<.05). The results were replicated at T3; CoP range x - F(1,10)= 7.952, p <.05; CoP range y - F(1,10)= 11.105, p <.05).
Conclusion: The experimental group showed a smaller range in postural sway on both axes; indicating a reduction in the postural sway. A significant relationship was also evident between CoP range x, CoP range y and the participants’ performance in archery. It is recommended that a core stability training program is incorporated into an archery training program for adolescent archers.
Keywords: Archery, Postural sway, Postural stability, Core muscle training, Center of pressure, Bodyweight exercises.

Amara D. Perera, Chandini Perera, Aranjan Karunanayake

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2017/v4i5/159426

Pages : 302-310

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Background: This study evaluated the effects of an early stretching exercises programme on the range of motion of the shoulder joint and functional recovery in patients with burns.
Methods: A randomized controlled study was conducted. Patients from 15 to 55 years of age with a total burn injury surface area (TBSA) of 10% to 45% involving the shoulder joint including axilla were eligible. Participants were randomized into two groups; intervention and a usual care control group, with 110 patients in each group. A standardized protocol was used in the management of intervention group for 14 days. The control group was subjected to usual protocol currently used. The range of Motion (ROM) was measured, and Functional recovery (FR) was assessed with the Quick DASH questionnaire and the Abduction Ladder. Data were obtained before and after the intervention phase and at 3, 6 and 12 months of post-burn period.
Results: The mean (SD) age of intervention group and control group were 29.76 [9.81] and 30.31 [9.45] respectively. The mean (SD) TBSA% of intervention group and control group was 26.15[9.45] and 24.60[9.56] respectively. There is a significant beneficial difference (p=<0.0001) in ROM and FR between the intervention group and the control group.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that an early sustained stretching exercise regime significantly improved the ROM and functional recovery of the shoulder joint after a severe burn involving the axilla.
Keywords: Range of Motion (ROM), Stretching exercises, Axillary burn, Functional recovery.

Sabah Mohammed Easa Alkady, Ragia Mohammed Kamel, Enas AbuTaleb, Yasser Lasheen, Fatma Anas Alshaarawy

DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2017/v4i5/159427

Pages : 311-318

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Background: Sacroiliac joint dysfunction represents 15% of low back pain conditions. Normal sacroiliac joint works as a safeguard and transmits upper body weight into the pelvis and lower extremities. If the SIJ is hypomobile, it cannot effectively absorb forces and other body parts may be overstressed causing musculoskeletal dysfunction. The study conducted by comparing the effectiveness of Mulligan mobilization versus muscle energy technique in chronic SIJ dysfunction.
Methods: 45 patients with chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction from both genders joined the study. They were divided into three groups 15 in each group. Group A: received Mulligan mobilization with movement using posterior and anterior innominate methods plus conventional treatment program. Group B: received muscle energy technique using a post-isometric relaxation technique to erector spinae, hamstrings, iliopsoas and quadratus lumborum plus conventional treatment program. Group C: control group obtained conventional treatment program only. Doppler imaging of vibration, palpation meter, and the visual analogue scale was utilized for evaluating patients (pre and post-treatment).
Results: The study findings revealed a statistical remarkable improvement in post-intervention values for sacroiliac mobility in Mulligan mobilization group (p > 0.0001) and a statistically significant decrease of anterior pelvic tilting angle in Mulligan mobilization and muscle energy technique groups (p > 0.0001), also a significant decrease of pain in the 3 groups compared with pre-intervention values (p > 0.0001), additionally, Mulligan mobilization group showed a statistical high detectable difference in right and left sacroiliac mobility more than muscle energy technique and control groups (p > 0.0001).
Conclusion: Mulligan mobilization is more effective than muscle energy technique in the treatment of chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction.
Keywords: Mulligan mobilization, Muscle energy technique, Doppler imaging of vibration, sacroiliac joint (SJ).