[International Journal of Physiotherapy 2018; 5(2) : 31-86] RSS
Volume 5 Issue 2
Masahiro Edo, Sumiko Yamamoto
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2018/v5i2/170731
Pages : 31-35
Although the kinematic coupling of calcaneus and shank is important for optimizing the pathological movement of the lower extremity, it is not sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to represent the kinematic coupling behavior of calcaneal pronation/supination and shank rotation quantitatively while standing and to identify the extent of the individual, age, gender and laterality differences in these measurements.Methods:
This study was a cross-sectional study that subjects were 25 healthy young people (17 men and eight women) and 29 healthy elderly people (15 men and 14 women). Kinematic coupling behavior was quantified as the linear regression coefficient (kinetic chain ratio: KCR) of the angle of shank rotation against the angle of calcaneal pronation-to-supination measured using a 3D motion analysis system during pronation and supination of both feet while standing. Individual differences in the KCR, which is an outcome, were also investigated with regard to differences in age, gender, and laterality.Results:
The mean KCR in all subjects was 1.00 ± 0.23. In addition, the coefficient of variation (CV) was 22.9%, with individual results varying from a maximum of 1.6 to a minimum of 0.4. The KCR was also larger in men than in women (p<0.001), while the CV for both men and women was in the 20% range.Conclusion:
We should focus attention on individual difference of kinematic coupling rather than assessing the movementby the attributes of the subject. Because, individual differences in KCR are larger than age, gender and laterality differences.Keywords: Kinematic chain, calcaneus, shank, individual difference, gender difference, motion analysis
Yasmine S Gomaa, Joanne E Wittwer, Rebecca J Grenfell, Salah A Sawan, Meg E Morris
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2018/v5i2/170732
Pages : 36-49
Dementia can be associated with motor and non-motor disorders such as cognitive impairment, depression, and behavioral disturbance. The symptoms typically progress gradually over time. Music-cued exercises have been of therapeutic interest in recent years, especially to enable people with chronic neurological diseases to move more easily and to experience greater well-being. Objective: To investigate whether music-cued exercises are more effective than usual care for the management of motor and non-motor symptoms in people living with dementiaMethods:
Systematic searching of the international literature was conducted in January 2018. Keywords were searched through electronic databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, the Web of Science, Science Direct, Wiley online library, and JOVE. The Cochrane collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The Downs and Black checklist assessed the quality of non-RCTs.Results:
Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria, including 4 RCTs. Three investigated the effects of music-cued exercises on motor performance, four examined non-motor outcomes, four quantified the level of exercise participation, and one examined both motor and non-motor outcomes. The included studies were of modest to low quality.Conclusion:
There is growing evidence for the beneficial effects of music-cued exercises for people living with dementia. Enjoyable music and physical exercises matched to rhythmical music appear to have benefits for some individuals.The dosage of music-cued exercise is a key determinant of the motor and non-motor outcomes in people living with a variety of forms of dementia.Keywords: Dementia, Alzheimers disease, Music, Exercise, Physiotherapy.
Asmaa F Abdelmonem, Ghada A Mohamed, Salam M Elhafez
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2018/v5i2/170741
Pages : 50-56
Sprained ankle a common orthopedic injury. The standard treatment for ankle sprains remains nonoperative. Ankle taping was used to protect and prevent ligaments excessive strain. So, the current study aimed at investigating the effect of spa-care Kinesio tape versus standard white athletic tape on myoelectric activities (EMG) of ankle evertors (peroneus longus) and invertors (tibialis anterior) in a chronic ankle sprain.Methods:
A convenient sample of 30 patients with a chronic ankle sprain (18 females and 12 males) were included in this study. Their mean age ±SD was 24 ±1.2 years. Their height was 175±4.8 cm among men & 163±5.2 cm for females, and weight was 85±5.2 kg for males & 74±5.5 kg for women. It was a within-group design in which the same participant experienced the two types of taping compared to no taping condition. Root mean square (RMS) was measured while participants were moving the isokinetic dynamometer at an angular velocity of 120°/sec using concentric contraction mode through full ankle range of motion. The EMG (RMS) of evertors and invertors was measured immediately after the three taping ways (no tape, Kinesio tape, and athletic tape) with a one-week interval between each taping.Results:
Spa-care Kinesiotape significantly reduced evertors and invertors EMG (RMS) compared with no tape or athletic tape in patients with chronic ankle sprain. Mean± SD of the evertors was 0.7 (±0.1) for no tape and 0.58 (±0.2) for Kinesio tape. The P value was 0.000 for kinesio tape in evertors compared with no tape. Also, mean± SD of the invertors was 0.87 (±0.23) for no tape, and 0.54 (±0.1) for Kinesio tape and the P value was 0.001 for Kinesio tape in invertors compared with no tape.Conclusion:
Spa-care Kinesio tape may be useful for reducing EMG activity of ankle muscles in a chronic ankle sprain.Keywords: Myoelectric activity, Kinesiotape, Athletic tape, Ankle muscles, Chronic ankle sprain.
Jibi Paul, Sharmilaa Kumar
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2018/v5i2/170742
Pages : 57-62
Dynamic balance is an ability to move two or more body parts under control. The split and squat jump exercise primarily strengthen gluteus, hamstring muscles, quadriceps, and calves muscles, as well as provide cardiovascular benefits. The objectives of the study were to find the effect of split jump and squat jump exercise on dynamic balance and to compare the effect of exercise on the dynamic balance among female netball players in KPJ University College.Methods:
An experimental design with total 80 female subjects were selected and divided equally to 40 subjects in each group. The Star Excursion Balance Test was used to measure the outcome of dynamic balance before and after the intervention. Group A received split jump exercise whereas Group B received squat jump exercise. The intervention was given for six weeks with three sessions for each week. After six weeks of intervention, the researcher checked dynamic balance for both groups.Results:
The result showed that there is a significant difference between the groups with P-values 0.0043, 0.0001, 0.0471,0.0001 for anterior, lateral, posterior and medial respectively.Conclusion:
The study concluded that both exercises could improve dynamic balance. However, the squat jump exercise is more effective to improve dynamic balance among netball players.Keywords: dynamic balance, star excursion balance test, split jump, squat jump.
Pavani Vungarala, Rajeswari M
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2018/v5i2/170744
Pages : 63-68
Muscle tone in Preterm infants (PTI) is lower actively and passively compared to full-term infants (FTI) due to reduced flexor muscle tone even at term age. They show more extension and difficulty moving against gravity due to maturation-related hypotonia which may affect the motor development of the child. Birth weight and gestational age signify the level of growth of various systems at birth which might impact the motor development. This study aims to correlate the effect of birth weight, gestational age and muscle tone with the motor development of PTI at eight months of corrected age.Methods:
This cross-sectional study included 39 PTI who met the criteria for eight months of corrected age. Subjects were recruited from Child Development Unit when the infant returned for developmental assessment. Birth weight and Gestational age were noted, and motor development was assessed with Peabody Developmental Motor scale (PDMS 2). Muscle tone was assessed using Amiel-Tison Angles (ATA) with a goniometer.Results:
Gestational age did not show a significant correlation, but birth weight showed a positive correlation and Muscle tone assessed with ATA showed significant negative correlation with Gross Motor Quotient (GMQ), Fine motor Quotient (FMQ) and Total Motor Quotient (TMQ) of PDMS with a p-value <0.05.Conclusion:
The study concludes that motor development is influenced significantly by birth weight and muscle tone and maturation-related hypotonia is found to be carried in PTI during the first year of life which has an impact on motor development. Clinicians should consider strategies to improve the muscle tone in the initial periods to prevent motor delays in these infants.Keywords: preterm infant, muscle tone, maturation related hypotonia, Amiel Tison Angles, birth weight, corrected age.
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2018/v5i2/170746
Pages : 69-74
Numerous systematic reviews have been published on tendinopathies that deals with specific therapies on a specific location. Clinical therapists find it difficult to synthesize these results into their practice as evidence is conflicting between the sites of tendinopathy. The objective of this systematic review is to see the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions (both active- exercise and passive- physical agents) in the management of tendinopathies.Methods:
Articles were selected from Web of Science (WoS) by entering keywords in mid-December 2017. Articles published in the English language, between 2000 and 2017 were selected. The author selected 14 reviews from 31 possible reviews for this article and all, but one was indexed in PubMed too. Seven, 1, 3 and 3 were the number of articles that were carried treatment, physiotherapy, exercise and physical agents in their titles. Shoulder, hip or knee, ankle locations were dealt in 6, 4 and four articles respectively.Results:
Current evidence-based literature shows that exercise especially eccentric one is the definite physiotherapy treatment option for treating lower limb and some upper limb tendinopathies. However, reviews show that other forms of exercises particularly stabilization as a promising option in upper limb conditions. Physical agents (Ultra Sound [US], Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation [TENS] are showing conflicting results hence not recommended at this point. The LASER can be used in Shoulder tendinopathies.Conclusion:
The traditional concept of eccentric training in tendinopathies is challenged by recent reviews which show stabilization and other types of exercises also improving pain and function in tendinopathies. Well-designed large RCT trials are required to see the effectiveness of physical agents, different types of exercise training on tendinopathies.Keywords: Physical Therapy, Evidence-Based Medicine, Exercise, Physical agents, Systematic review.
Abdullah M. Al-Shenqiti
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2018/v5i2/170747
Pages : 75-79
It goes without saying that central or upper body adiposity leads to increased risks of obesity-associated metabolic complications. Direct methods of measurement of central obesity are not practical for field studies due to technical difficulties and cost. Thus, the urge to depend on anthropometry is going larger. The purposes of the study were to evaluate the relations between different anthropometry and to predict and cross-validate these measures.Methods:
Subjects participating in the study included only 71 boys from different grades (aged 6-12 years). The following anthropometric measurements were measured and calculated: body mass index(BMI), waist circumference(WC), waist to hip ratio(WHR), and waist to height ratio(WHtR).Results:
WC was the best single predictor of obesity, explaining 67.4% (r=0.67)of its variance while WHR explained 0.6% (r=0.006)and WHtR explained 7.3%.(r=0.07) Following quadratic regression and cross-validation techniques, it was obvious that WC better explained 77.3%(r=0.77) with p<0.05 of the variance of BMI, while WHtR explained 11.5% (r=0.11) with p<0.961, and WHR explained 16.7% (r=0.16)with p<0.546.Conclusion:
Collinearity between body mass index(BMI) and waist circumference (WC) does exist, but it is recommended to use Waist circumference associated with body mass index at a young age due to the period of intense growth.Keywords: Anthropometric measures, visceral adiposity, subcutaneous adiposity, cross-validation.
Roshdy M. kamel, Ghada I. Mohamed, Ibrahim M. Moustafa, Ragia M.Kamel, Omaima M. Kattabei
DOI : 10.15621/ijphy/2018/v5i2/170748
Pages : 80-86
Nonspecific neck pain is a frequent cause for adults to consult health care providers. Therefore, the physical therapist should always seek the most effective intervention(s) within the wide spectrum of treatments available, so this study was conducted to examine the effect of transcranial laser on somatosensory integration in nonspecific neck pain patients.Methods:
Thirty-two male subjects suffering from non-specific neck pain participated in the current study. They were randomly assigned via a balanced stratified assignment. The experimental group (N=16) received trans-cranial infra-red laser (50mw, 90 snm pulsed mode, and 1.2 J/cm 2) over sensory cortex whereas, the control group (N=16) received placebo laser. The assessment of N30 and P22-N30 components of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were done before and immediately after treatment session for both groups.Results:
There was a statistically significant difference between groups regarding N30 peak of SEPs after a single trans-cranial laser session (p=0.0062) with no significant difference between pre and post-treatment data in the experimental group (p=0.0803) and control group (p=0.5577) with a percentage of change (-2.38%) and (1.009%) respectively. In addition, post-treatment results revealed no statistically significant difference between groups regarding an a P22-N30 component of SEPs (p=0.0933).Conclusion:
According to the parameters used in the study, it was concluded that trans-cranial laser did not affect somatosensory integration in nonspecific neck pain patients.Keywords: Transcranial, laser, somatosensory, integration, neck, pain.